* 50 clues - GRAMMAR *





Libreria AVALON 2000


This book has not been written to compete either with school-textbooks, neither with SPANISH GRAMMAR books of 500 or 800 pages, aimed at University students and teachers.

This is a work directed to students and/or teachers of Primary and Secondary schools who wish to have compiled in 1 volume the numerous RULES and EXCEPTIONS - concerning Morphology and Syntax - which are "scattered" along the more than eighty lessons that may include studies of Primary and Secondary courses.

Due to the book format and number of pages this GRAMMAR provides EASY handling.

The structure and summary tables will be EASY to understand and memorize.

Because of its 40 pages about "Special Difficulties", and its 33 models of IRREGULAR verbs, you had wished to have been able to consult it long ago.

Its "INDEX" General “50 CLUES” and Alphabetical will make searching EASY.

The INDEX entitled “50 STEPS” is for structuring the teaching in 50 progressive steps from minor to greater difficulty.

The information given in the ANNEX about SPAIN will be also very useful for you all.

* LIBRERÍA Avalon 2000 *

- Tannay GARDENS -

- Tannay GARDENS -

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- ORANGE blossoms -

Castillo TEMPLARIO (Ponferrada)

Castillo TEMPLARIO (Ponferrada)
Castillo Templario * PONFERRADA (León)

jueves, 30 de agosto de 2012

* VERBOS:- Transitivos / Intransitivos / Reflexivos / Recíprocos...


The verb is a “variable part” in a sentence that we use to express:-

 “state of the subject”          “Verbos COPULATIVOS”
                                   “the action done by us”          “Voz ACTIVA”

                                   “the action we receive”          “Voz PASIVA”

In Spanish, the verbs are composed by “root” (radical) and “ending” (desinencia).

Therefore, it is “changing the endings”,
how we “conjugate” our verbs.

The Spanish CONJUGATION of verbs results in the fact that
we do not need to mention the “subject”,
since our “endings” will perfectly indicate - to our interlocutors -
who is the SUBJECT doing the action
and which is the TENSE & MODE used.

“RADICAL” is the part of the verb which is permanent in any TENSE or MODE - with the exception of some IRREGULAR verbs which will be quoted in a special chapter.

“DESINENCIA” is the variable part of the verb that changes depending on the Subject, the Mode and the Tense.

“TRANSITIVOS” are those verbs which action falls directly on SOMEBODY or something:-
                              I buy flowers for my mother /    I will have fish & chips for lunch.

“INTRANSITIVOS”  are those verbs that express an action which falls on the own subject:-
                                  My daughter is growing a lot = Mi hija está creciendo mucho.

“REFLEXIVOS” are the verbs we use to express that the action is done for the benefit of the proper 
                            subject:- I wash myself – She washes herself – They wash themselves.

“RECÍPROCOS” are the verbs which tell us that the action is done and received by two
                              or more persons at the same time:-  

My grandma and I loved each other.              Mi abuela y yo nos queríamos mucho.
You and your daughter love each other.        Tú y tu hija os queréis mucho.
Mary and John love “each other”.                 María y Juan se quieren (él uno al otro).


In Spanish, a verb is in "Mode Infinitive" if the verbal word ends in  “AR” “ER”“IR”.

The verbs ending in  “- AR” belong to the  FIRST conjugation.

AMAR (to love) - CANTAR (to sing) - BAILAR (to dance) - DISFRUTAR (to enjoy)

The verbs ending in  “- ER” belong to the  SECOND conjugation.

COMER (to eat) – BEBER (to drink) – CORRER (to run) – BARRER (to sweep)

The verbs ending in  “- IR” belong to the THIRD conjugation.

VIVIR (to live) - CONDUCIR (to drive) - DECIR (to say & to tell) ADMITIR (to admit)


In English named  "PAST  PARTICIPLE", it is formed in the following way in Spanish:-

FIRST  conjugation

Delete ending “AR” - of  verb in INFINITIVE - and then add  ADO”.

amADO (lovED) - cantADO (sung) - bailADO (danced) – disfrutADO (enjoyed).

SECOND  conjugation

Delete ending “ER” - of  verb in INFINITIVE - and then add  “IDO”.

comIDo (eaten) – bebIDO (drunk) – corrIDO (run) – barrIDO (sweeped).

THIRD  conjugation

Delete ending “IR” - of  verb in INFINITIVE - and then add  “IDO”.

VIVido (lived) - conducIDO(driven) - admitIDO (admitted) – dirigIDO (led).

ð  As it happens in English with the auxiliary verb “TO HAVE”, these forms of Past PARTICIPLE together with our auxiliary verb  “HABER” are used to form the "PERFECT  Tenses".

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